Realistic & Symbolic Threat (as per Earle & Hodson, 2019, EJSP, Study 3)
(see that paper for references for scale items; we pool from across several sources)
Realistic Threat (4-items, 1-7 rating)
Because of the presence of Muslims, Americans have more difficulties in finding a place to live.
Because of the presence of Muslims, unemployment in the U.S. will increase.
America’s crime problems are made worse by Muslims.
Most Muslims who live here work and pay taxes. They also use health and welfare services. But on balance, Muslims who live here put in more than they take out.
Symbolic Threat (4-items)
American norms and family values are being threatened because of the presence of Muslims.
Muslims are a threat to the American culture.
America’s cultural life is generally enriched by Muslims.
I am worried that our rights and freedoms are threatened by the presence of Muslims.